Showing posts with label genius. Show all posts

Johannes Mallow (left) with Wigald Boning (right) at the opening ceremony for the Year of Science in Magdeburg 2.006. Johannes Mallow...

Johannes Mallow (left) with Wigald Boning (right) at the opening ceremony for the Year of Science in Magdeburg 2.006.

Johannes Mallow (born June 7, 1.981 Brandenburg an der Havel) is a German memory sportsman. 

He studies Communication Technology at the Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg. 

Besides he is working as a mind trainer for highly gifted children and also at the Folk High School in Magdeburg.

Victories

2013 Memory Champion of Germany
2012 World Memory Champion
2012 Memory Champion of Germany
2011 runner-up at Memory Championship of Germany
2010 runner-up at World Memory Championships
2010 Memory Champion of Germany
2009 runner-up at World Memory Championships
2008 Memory Champion of Germany
2008 Memory Champion of North Germany
2007 World Memory Champion in the discipline of Historical Dates
2007 Memory Champion of North Germany
2006 Memory Champion of North Germany

World records

Memorize 492 abstract images in 15 minutes (July 27, 2.013 in Isny_im_Allgäu/Germany at the German Memory Championship 2.013).

Memorize 912 numbers in 15 minutes (March 23, 2.013 in Rom/Italy at the Italian Memory Open Championship 2.013).

Memorize 132 Historical Dates out of 140 in 5 minutes (September 25, 2.011 in Gothenburg/Sweden at the Swedish Memory Open Championship 2.011).

Memory System

He is using the Method of loci. 

Many memory sportsmen use this method. 

His particular instance of the message uses 1000 images with corresponding numbers, so that each combination of 3 digits corresponds to a unique image.

Born : 1 April 1.895 in Dunedin, New Zealand Died : 3 Nov 1.967 in Edinburgh, Scotland Alec Aitken's family on his father'...

Born : 1 April 1.895 in Dunedin, New Zealand

Died : 3 Nov 1.967 in Edinburgh, Scotland

Alec Aitken's family on his father's side were from Scotland, and on his mother's side were from England. 

Alec's mother, Elizabeth Towers, emigrated with her family to New Zealand from Wolverhampton, England, when she was eight years old. 

Alexander Aitken, Alec's grandfather on his father's side, had emigrated from Lanarkshire in Scotland to Otago in New Zealand in 1.868, and began farming near Dunedin. 

Alec's father, William Aitken, was one of his fourteen children and William began his working life on his father's farm. 

However he gave this up and became a grocer in Dunedin. 

William and Elizabeth had seven children, Alec being the eldest.

He attended the Otago Boys' High School in Dunedin, where he was head boy in 1.-912, winning a scholarship to Otago University which he entered in 1.913. 

Surprisingly, although he had amazed his school friends and teachers with his incredible memory, he had shown no special mathematical abilities at school. 

He began to study languages and mathematics at university with the intention of becoming a school teacher but his university career was interrupted by World War I.

In 1.915 he enlisted in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force and served in Gallipoli, Egypt, and France, being wounded at the battle of the Somme. 

His war experiences were to haunt him for the rest of his life. 

After three months in hospital in Chelsea, London, he was sent back to New Zealand in 1.917. 

The following year he returned to his university studies, graduating in 1.920 with First Class Honours in French and Latin but only Second Class Honours in mathematics in which he had no proper instruction. In the year he graduated, 

Aitken married Mary Winifred Betts who was a botany lecturer at Otago University. 

They had two children, a girl and a boy.

Aitken followed his original intention and became a school teacher at his old school Otago Boys' High School. 

His mathematical genius bubbled under the surface and, encouraged by R J T Bell the new professor of mathematics at Otago University, Aitken came to Scotland in 1.923 and studied for a Ph.D. at Edinburgh under Whittaker. 

Aitken's wife, Mary, had continued to lecture at Otago up to the time they left for Edinburgh. 

His doctoral studies progressed extremely well as he studied an actuarially motivated problem of fitting a curve to data which was subject to statistical error. 

Rather remarkably, his Ph.D. thesis was considered so outstanding that he was awarded a D.Sc. for it in 1926. Even before the award of the degree, 

Aitken was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1.925.

He was appointed to Edinburgh University in 1.925 where he spent the rest of his life. 

After holding lecturing posts in actuarial mathematics, then in statistics, then mathematical economics, he became a Reader in statistics in 1.936, the year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. 

Ten years later he was appointed to Whittaker's chair.

Aitken had an incredible memory (he knew π to 2000 places) and could instantly multiply, divide and take roots of large numbers. He describes his own mental processes in the article.

Although some may suggest this has little to do with mathematical ability, Aitken himself wrote:-

Familiarity with numbers acquired by innate faculty sharpened by assiduous practice does give insight into the profounder theorems of algebra and analysis.

Aitken's mathematical work was in statistics, numerical analysis, and algebra. In numerical analysis he introduced the idea of accelerating the convergence of a numerical method. 

He also introduced a method of progressive linear interpolation. In algebra he made contributions to the theory of determinants. He also saw clearly how invariant theory fitted into the theory of groups but wrote that he had never followed through his ideas because of:-

... various circumstances of anxiety, or duty, or bad health ... I have observed my talented younger contemporary Dudley Littlewood's assault and capture most of this terrain.

Aitken wrote several books, one of the most famous being 

The theory of canonical matrices (1.932) which was written jointly with Turnbull. With Rutherford he was editor of a series of the University Mathematical Texts and he himself wrote for the series Determinants and matrices (1.939) and Statistical Mathematics (1.939). 

In 1.962 he published an article very dear to his heart, namely The case against decimalisation.

In describing his period of recovery from a small operation in 1.934 Aitken writes:-

The nights were bad, in the daytime colleagues and other friends visited me, and I tried to think about abstract things, such as the theory of probability and the theory of groups and I did begin to see more deeply into these rather abstruse disciplines. 

Indeed I date a change in my interests and an increase in competence, from these weeks of enforced physical inactivity.

Also  Aitken describes the reaction of other mathematicians to his work:-

... the papers on numerical analysis, statistical mathematics and the theory of the symmetric group continued to write themselves in steady succession, with other small notes on odds and ends. 

Those that I valued most, the algebraic ones, seemed to attract hardly any notice, others, which I regarded as mere application of the highly compressed and powerful notation and algebra of matrices to standard problems in statistics or computation found great publicity in America...

Colin M Campbell, now a colleague of the authors of this archive at the University of St Andrews, was a student in Edinburgh in the early 1.960's. 

He writes :Professor Aitken's first year mathematics lectures were rather unusual. 

The fifty minutes were composed of forty minutes of clear mathematics, five minutes of jokes and stories and five minutes of 'tricks'. 

For the latter Professor Aitken would ask for members of the class to give him numbers for which he would then write down the reciprocal, the square root, the cube root or other appropriate expression. 

From the five minutes of 'stories' one also recalls as part of his lectures on probability a rather stern warning about the evils and foolishness of gambling!

In fact Aitken's memory proved a major problem for him throughout his life. For most people memories fade in time which is particularly fortunate for the unpleasant things which happen. 

However for Aitken memories did not fade and, for example, his horrific memories of the battle of the Somme lived with him as real as the day he lived them. 

He wrote of them in near the end of his life. 

These memories must have contributed, or perhaps were the entire cause, of the recurrent ill health he suffered.

These black periods must have been harrowing in the extreme, but were borne with great fortitude and courage.

The illness eventually led to his death. 

The book which he wrote to try to put the memories of the Somme behind him, may not have had the desired effect but the book led to Aitken being elected to the Royal Society of Literature in 1.964.

Finally we should mention Aitken's love of music. 

He played the violin and composed music to a very high standard and a professional musician said :Aitken is the most accomplished amateur musician I have ever known.

Rüdiger Gamm (born July 10, 1.971) is a German "mental calculator".  He attained the ability to mentally evaluate large ar...


Rüdiger Gamm (born July 10, 1.971) is a German "mental calculator". 

He attained the ability to mentally evaluate large arithmetic expressions at the age of 21. 

He can also speak backwards, and calculate calendars. 

Featured on the Discovery Channel program the Real Superhumans, he was examined by Allan Snyder, an expert on savants, who concluded that Gamm's ability was not a result of savant syndrome but connected to genetics.

In terms of mental calculations, Rüdiger's most notable talent is the ability to memorise large powers. 

In the 2.008 Mental Calculation World Cup in Leipzig, he recited 81100, which took approximately 2 minutes and 30 seconds. 

In the tournament itself, he performed strongly, finishing in 5th position overall.

They say we only use 10% of our brain. 

They may be right. 

If only we can figure out the strategies to tap into these mental capabilities. 

But even if you don’t figure it out, at least know that you are more extraordinary than you think you are. 

Rudiger, who regularly failed his math at school, has learnt at age of 21 how to activate the other 80 per cent of his brain, making him a modern day genius.

Also known as the Human Calculator, Rudiger Gamm was known in his school as being the worst one in math. 

As a matter of fact, Rudiger has failed his school six times because of his math. 

However, at age of 21, Rudiger discovered his mental abilities in memorizing and calculating the most complex mathematical problems. 

Soon, he became very demanded amongst scientist to study the anomalies of his brain. 

It didn’t take too long before he went to the biggest show in Europe (Wetten Dass), where he won the highest voting ever in the history of the show. 

In 2.006 Rudiger was part of the international documentation “Voyage Into The Brain”. 

In 2.007 he was documented in a Discovery Channel programme “Real Super Humans”. 

Rudiger published a book “Train Your Brain” in 2.008, and now for over 10 years works as a mental trainer for managers, sportsmen and schools.

Pen name : The Human Calculator Occupation :Mental Calculator Language :English Nationality :American Notable work(s) : Math Mag...


Pen name : The Human Calculator
Occupation :Mental Calculator
Language :English
Nationality :American
Notable work(s) : Math Magic
Math Magic for Kids
Notable award(s) : Guinness World Record 2.001

Scott Flansburg is an American man often called a mental calculator. 

Dubbed "The Human Calculator" by Regis Philbin, in 2.001 he was entered into the Guinness Book of World Records for speed of mental calculation. 

He is the annual host and ambassador for World Maths Day, and is a math educator and media personality. 

Flansburg has appeared on shows such as The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Larry King Live, and Stan Lee's Superhumans, and has published the books Math Magic and Math Magic for Your Kids.

Early life

Scott Flansburg was born on December 28, 1.963, in Herkimer, New York. 

Scott has stated that he was nine years old when he first discovered his mental calculator abilities, after he was able to solve his teacher's math question without needing to write down the calculations. 

Afterwards he would keep a running tally of his family's groceries at the store, so his father could give the cashier an exact check before the bill had been rung up. 

In his youth he also began noticing that the shape and number of angles in numbers are clues to their value, and began counting from 0 to 9 on his fingers instead of 1 to 10.

Early career

Flansburg can subtract, add, multiply, divide, and find square and cube roots in his head almost instantly with calculator accuracy. 

Around 1.990 he began using his ability in an entertainment and educational context.

He was dubbed "The Human Calculator" by Regis Philbin after appearing on Live with Regis and Kathy Lee.

The Guinness Book of World Records listed him as "Fastest Human Calculator" in 2.001 and 2003, after he broke the record for adding the same number to itself more times in 15 seconds than someone could do with a calculator.

In 1.999 Flansburg invented a 13 month calendar that uses zero as a day, month, and year alternative to the Gregorian calendar that he called "The Human Calculator Calendar."

In 1.998 he published the book Math Magic for Your Kids: Hundreds of Games and Exercises from the Human Calculator to Make Math Fun and Easy on Harper Paperbacks. 

A revised edition of his book Math Magic: How to Master Everyday Math Problems was published in 2.004.

As an educator

Since about 1.990 Flansburg has regularly given lectures and presentations at schools. 

He has appeared as a presenter at institutions such as NASA, IBM, The Smithsonian Institute, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and the Mental Calculation World Cup. 

The latter has described Flansburg as "more an auditory than a visual [mental] calculator."

According to Flansburg, one of his personal missions is to use education to elevate mathematical confidence and self-esteem in adults and children, stating "Why has it become so socially acceptable to be bad at math? 

If you were illiterate you wouldn’t say that on TV, but you can say that you are bad at math. 

We have to change the attitude.

" He is a proponent of students becoming comfortable with calculation methods instead of relying on table memorization.

Flansburg is the annual host and ambassador for World Maths Day.

He is also an official promoter of the American Math Challenge, a competition for students preparing for World Math Day.

Media appearances

Flansburg has appeared on television shows such as The Oprah Winfrey Show, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Larry King Live. 

On April 26, 2.009, while on the Japanese primetime show Asahi's Otona no Sonata, he broke his own world record with 37 answers in 15 seconds.

He was featured as The Human Calculator in the first episode of Stan Lee's Superhumans, which aired on The History Channel on August 5, 2.010. 

Part of the episode analyzed his brain activity.

An Mri scan while he was doing complex calculations revealed that his brain activity in the Brodmann area 44 region of the frontal cortex was absent. 

Instead he showed activity somewhat above area 44 losser and closer to the motor cortex.

Birth: 30 November 1990 (21 years) Nationality: Norwegian Occupation: Chess Player Sven Magnus Carlsen Øen (November 30, 1.990, Bæru...

Birth: 30 November 1990 (21 years)
Nationality: Norwegian
Occupation: Chess Player

Sven Magnus Carlsen Øen (November 30, 1.990, Bærum, Akershus, Norway) is a norwegian International chess Grandmaster.

In the year 2.010 he reached the top of world rankings of the International Chess Federation.

He was the youngest player to surpass the 2800 ELO points, and achieving the position of world number one to get at the age of 19 years and one month.

It should be noted further that today (12/06/2012) has 2835 Elo points as shown in the FIDE rating.

On 26 April 2004 Carlsen became a Grandmaster at the age of 13 years, 4 months and 27 days, at the time the youngest in the world. Carlsen is the third youngest grandmaster in getting the title in the history of the game after Sergei Karjakin and Negi Parimarjan.

Carlsen live in Lommedalen, near the Norwegian capital, Oslo.

At eight he played his first tournament, was trained at the Sports Gymnasium led by Norway's best player, Grandmaster Simen Agdestein. Featured Victories: Magnus has beaten the likes of Nigel Short (former world runner), Kramnik, Ivan Sokolov, Dolmatov, Ernst and Karpov.

It has come to draw with Kasparov.

Magnus received from the 2,002 support from the Norwegian computer company Artic Securities and is currently sponsored by Microsoft.

Danish Grandmaster Peter Heine Nielsen has trained, but from 2009 became known the news that former world champion Garry Kasparov had trained in secret since January of that year.

Carlsen was the youngest player to participate in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, but was eliminated in the first round by Levon Aronian.

In the year 2002 was proclaimed world runner at U-12.

He drew international attention by winning the Group C of Corus Chess Tournament in January 2004, with 10.5 points of 13 possible.

Two years later he won the Group B of the tournament.

In the Norwegian Championship Chess, 2005, Carlsen ended in a shared first place, this time with his mentor Simen Agdestein.


2006 Olympic chess player

Magnus scored 6/8 at the 37th Chess Olympiad in 2006 against opponents averaging 2627 Elo.

One of his notable wins was against the English grandmaster Michael Adams.

But in the last Olympics in 2010, Michael Adams took his revenge, defeating it.


Results of 2,007

In the Corus Chess Tournament in the Netherlands was ranked 13 th, achieving 4.5 points of 13 possible, with 9 boards and 4 losses.

Runners-up in Linares, 2007.

In March 2007, the International Chess tournament Morelia-Linares, Carlsen was ranked in 2nd place with 7.5 points in 14 games, with a score of (-3 +4 = 7) being first Viswanathan Anand.


Gausdal Victoria, 2007.

In April 2007, Carlsen won the tournament Gausdal Chess Classics, held in Norway, achieving September 7 points, ahead by 1.5 points to runners, Rozentalis (2nd), Portisch (3rd) and Kramsenkow (4th) of a total list of 10 chess.

Victoria in Biel, 2007

Carlsen won the 40th International Chess Festival in Biel, Switzerland from July 21 to August 3, 2007, 10 chess players, all against all.

After leading the tournament for several days, was ahead in the standings by two players, yet the victory in the last round against Teymur Rəcəbov allowed him to tie for first place with Onischuk.

In the tiebreaker, having won 4 games tables in the last game, earning this prestigious tournament.

Confirming once again that is a chess genius.


Corus Tournament Champion, 2.008

Magnus won, tied on points with Aronian, Corus Chess Tournament 2008, held in Holland, making 8 of 13 possible points.

Runner-up for the second time in Linares, 2.008.

In March 2008, the International Chess tournament Morelia-Linares, Carlsen was classified as in 2007, in 2nd place with 8 points in 14 games, with a score of (-3 +5 = 6) being first Anand place.

Runners-up in Melody Amber, 2,008.

Carlsen was the tournament runner-up, after the winner Aronian, level on points for 2nd place with Kramnik, Leko and Topalov, all at 2, 5 points behind the winner.

Carlsen won by 5-3 points in Leko rapid chess match played on 28 May to 1 June 2008 in Miskolc, Hungary, to the best of 8 games.

2 games played each day of play at a pace of 25 minutes and 5 seconds per move.

Play the Grand Slam Final Chess, 2.008

Carlsen, participated in Grand Slam Final Chess, from 2 to 14 September 2008 in Bilbao, Spain.

The classification is obtained, at the invitation of the organization, being co-winner of the Corus Chess Tournament, 2008 as well as being runner-up in Linares, 2008.

2.009 results


Blitz world champion in Moscow.

Carlsen blitz world champion by winning the final, held in Moscow from 16 to 18 November 2009.

There were 22 players, playing 42 games each, with double round robin, a time of 3 minutes + 2 seconds per move

The classification was as follows:

1 º. - Carlsen 31 points
2 nd. - Anand 28 points
3 º. - Karjakin 25 points
4 °. - Kramnik 24.5 points

Tal Memorial

Shortly before the World Championship held in blitz, from 5 to 14 super tournament took place this Category XXI with the participation of 10 of the 13 best players in the world, in which Carlsen was second behind Kramnik and tied with Ivanchuk.


London Chess Center Classic

Carlsen started the tournament as the best placed in a tournament involving Kramnik, Hikaru Nakamura, Michael Adams, Nigel Short, Ni Hua, Luke McShane and David Howell. Kramnik beat heading into the first round to win the tournament with 13/21 (otorgándose 3 points for a win, and 1 tie) and a performance rating of 2,844, a point ahead of Kramnik.

This victory secured first place in the FIDE rating list, overtaking Veselin Topalov by 5 points.

The average FIDE rating Carlsen July 2009 to January 2010 allowed him to qualify for the Candidates Tournament Cycle World Championship 2011.

2,010 Results


Corus Tournament Champion, 2.010

Magnus won the Corus Chess Tournament, 2.010, held in the Netherlands, from 16 to 31 January 13 achieved 8.5 points possible.

2nd place Kramnik, Shirov 3 rd of 14 participants.

Champion Melody Amber Chess Tournament, 2010

Magnus won, tied with Ivanchuk, this tournament held in Nice, France, 13 to March 25 of 22 scores of 14.5 points possible.


2,011 Results

Champion Grand Slam Final Chess, 2011 (São Paulo and Bilbao).

Magnus won, tied with Ivanchuk and untied by two games to 5 minutes.




Anthony Torrone (born circa 1.955) is an American Christian author who is developmentally disabled.  A savant, Torrone's 2.011 bo...

Anthony Torrone (born circa 1.955) is an American Christian author who is developmentally disabled. 

A savant, Torrone's 2.011 book, Anthony's Prayers was inspired by his time and the abuse that he experienced as a resident of the former Willowbrook State School which was a New York State mental hospital for children. 

Torrone has been a resident of Grand Rapids, Michigan since the 1.970s.

Anthony's Prayers was inspired by his time and the abuse that he experienced as a resident of the former Willowbrook State School which was a New York State mental hospital for children. 


One of 12 kids in a large Irish family… Boxing… Prison…  A thriving building firm… Junkie… Wives… Children… Friendships bitter and sw...

One of 12 kids in a large Irish family… Boxing… Prison… 

A thriving building firm… Junkie… Wives… Children… Friendships bitter and sweet… 

Being visited by Death, getting a headache and telling it to fuck off…

And then

A swirl, a fugue of events and experiences spiralling back and forward in time all meeting at one big bang moment when something split at a quantum level and Tommy the artist was born another life slipping anchor and heading to god knows where and when.

It’s not a life story I want to touch on here. 

Just my impression of Tom and his work. 

Tom as an artist and how, as an artist myself, I see us all fitting into this...

Faces

It’s all about the face, the face as representative of identity and loss of it. 

You see each of them fighting for attention in his busiest, more heated work—when he’s in that fever and they all peek their noses out to be seen. 

A mass of them but no confusion. I imagine it’s how a particularly harassed medium must feel all of those presences vying for attention as the séance is about to begin. 

But somehow, some way, out of the hustle bustle, there’s coherence of multiple identity… 

Then the single faces, the portraits he paints where one identity has grabbed him for that few moments it takes him to put the paint down. 

Peering out of the fog, lit up by sunlight, hiding but wanting to be seen.

And all these faces—is it just me or do I see Tommy’s high cheek bones in them? Self portraits of all the other quantum selves that flash through the perpetual motion machine that is Tommy’s creativity.

Alien landscapes

Over coffee recently Tommy told me it sometimes felt like he was walking through this life as if it's a constanty changing alien landscape. 

And that's part of the artistic experience I suppose. Always observing, always mystical and anthropological looking at the inner and the outer play of consciousness and actions coming and going and making of them what you will. 

I experience this to some degree. But with Tommy and his scuffle with death and the unleashing of his creative genie, unarbitered and free with Tommy this experience is intense and frighteningly out of control. I don't know how he copes. 

But he does as long as there's a brush and paint to magic the intensity away, or a lump of stone to carve...

Exhibitions

I first met Tommy some time ago, not too long after his double annoyance and the bursting of the dam.

I was just another person in an office and he'd come along for some help, some advice. 

Though he seemed to be doing OK without my help as a hindrance organising exhibitions of himself all over the Wirral. 

And it was only when I came to work at Neurosupport in Liverpool that our paths crossed again and now Tom's paintings hang in the atrium of the Neurosupport building and draw amazement and comment from everyone who sees them. 

Now, with documentaries about him, journalists and sundry seekers after the bizarre and remarkable interviewing him Tommy is something of celebrity, a one-man painting machine with one thing in his mind. 

To dispel a few myths, and open more than a few eyes...

Witch Doctors

I know that Tommy has sometimes felt more of a lab rat than an individual with a fascinating experience to relate. It seems the individual gets lost in the mechanistic world view of most 'specialists' and probers. 

Only Dr Alice W Flaherty of Harvard University (and author of the remarkable 'The Midnight Disease') has the insight and empathy to see what is happening: a chrysalis opened and a beautiful winged creativity emerged and changed one man's life in a miraculous way.

Future

I know Tommy doesn't dwell too much on the future he's far too busy creating and imagining in the present. 

But I hope this website gives us a glimpse into a future where the mystery of creation opens up before us and we see ourselves reflected back. 

Is there a Tommy McHugh in all of us? I hope so...



Born : 31 January 1979 (age 33) - London, England Occupation : Writer, educator Daniel Tammet (born on 31 January 1.979) is a Bri...

Born : 31 January 1979 (age 33) - London, England

Occupation : Writer, educator

Daniel Tammet (born on 31 January 1.979) is a British writer. 

His best selling 2.006 memoir, Born On A Blue Day, about his life with high-functioning autism and savant syndrome, was named a "Best Book for Young Adults" in 2.008 by the American Library Association.

Tammet's second book, Embracing the Wide Sky, was named one of France's best selling books of 2.009 by L'Express magazine in its March 2.010 edition.

Tammet's books have been published in 20 languages.

Biography

Early life

Tammet was born Daniel Paul Corney and raised in East London, England, the eldest of nine children. 

He suffered epileptic seizures as a young child, which he subsequently outgrew following medical treatment. 

At age twenty-five, he would eventually be diagnosed with Asperger syndrome by Professor Simon Baron-Cohen of the Autism (Spectrum) Research Centre at Cambridge University.

Tammet is one of fewer than a hundred "prodigious savants" according to Dr. Darold Treffert, the world's leading researcher in the study of savant syndrome. 

Tammet finished school with nine GCSEs (an 'A*' in History, 'A' grades in English, English Literature, French, and German, two 'B' grades in the Sciences, a 'B' in Maths, having obtained an 'A' in his preliminary Maths exam, and a 'C' in Woodwork) and three A-Levels in History, French and German, all at grade 'B'.

Preferring travel to university, Tammet taught English for a year in Lithuania.

Tammet twice participated (in 1.999, and 2.000) under his birth name in the World Memory Championships in London. 

Placing 12th in 1.999, and 4th in 2.000, behind a trio of present and future 'World Memory Champions'.

He changed his birth name by deed poll because "it didn't fit with the way he saw himself."

In 2.002 Tammet launched his website, Optimnem.

The site offers language courses (currently French and Spanish) and has been an approved member of the U.K.'s National Grid for Learning since 2.006.

Savantism

Tammet's memory, mathematical and linguistic abilities have been studied by some of the world's leading neuroscientists at California's Center for Brain Studies and the UK's Cambridge Autism Research Centre  and have been the subject of several peer-reviewed scientific papers.

Professor Allan Snyder at the Australian National University has said of Tammet: "Savants can't usually tell us how they do what they do. 

It just comes to them. Daniel can describe what he sees in his head. 

That's why he's exciting. He could be the 'Rosetta Stone'."

Tammet's unusually vivid and complex synesthesia has been widely reported. 

In his mind, he says, each positive integer up to 10,000 has its own unique shape, colour, texture and feel. 

He can intuitively "see" results of calculations as synaesthetic landscapes without using conscious mental effort and can "sense" whether a number is prime or composite. 

He has described his visual image of 289 as particularly ugly, 333 as particularly attractive, and pi as beautiful. The number 6 apparently has no distinct image yet what he describes as an almost small nothingness, opposite to the number 9 which he calls large and towering.

Tammet has described 25 as energetic and the "kind of number you would invite to a party".

Tammet not only verbally describes these visions, but has also created artwork, including a watercolour painting of pi.

Tammet holds the European record for reciting pi from memory to 22,514 digits in five hours and nine minutes on 14 March 2004.

Tammet's record currently ranks 6th in the world.

Tammet states in Born On A Blue Day that he speaks ten languages: English, Spanish, French, German, Finnish, Lithuanian, Romanian, Icelandic, Welsh, and Esperanto. 

He learned conversational Icelandic in one week, which he demonstrated in a live television interview conducted entirely in the language.

Segments of the interview showing Tammet responding to questions in Icelandic were shown in a documentary film entitled (in the UK) The Boy with the Incredible Brain, first broadcast on the British television station Channel Five on 23 May 2.005.

Segments of the interview were also televised on 28th January 2.007 edition of the CBS news magazine, 60 Minutes.

The British documentary showed Tammet meeting Kim Peek, a world famous savant. 

Peek was shown hugging Tammet telling him that "Some day you will be as great as I am," to which Tammet replied, "That was a wonderful compliment; what an aspiration to have!".

Career

Born On A Blue Day, Tammet's memoir of a life with Asperger's syndrome, received international media attention and critical praise. 

Booklist's Ray Olson stated that Tammet's autobiography was "as fascinating as Benjamin Franklin's and John Stuart Mill's" and that Tammet wrote "some of the clearest prose this side of Hemingway". 

Kirkus stated that the book "transcends the disability memoir genre". 

Other reviewers praised Tammet for his "elegant," "eloquent," and "engaging" style.

For his U.S. book tour, he appeared on several television and radio talk shows and specials, including 60 Minutes and Late Show with David Letterman.

In February 2.007 Born on a Blue Day was serialised as BBC Radio 4's Book of the Week in the United Kingdom.

Tammet's second book, Embracing the Wide Sky, was published in 2.009. 

Professor Allan Snyder, director of Sydney University's Centre for the Mind, called the work 'an extraordinary and monumental achievement'.

Tammet argues that savant abilities should not be seen as "supernatural" or computer-like but as "an outgrowth" of normal brain functioning and "natural, instinctive ways of thinking about numbers and words", which suggests that affected brains might be at least partially retrained and that normal brains might be taught to develop or retain some savant abilities.

In other people blue is connected with sadness for example, but when you think about it sadness is an abstract concept so why is it blue, why not green or yellow?

It makes no more logical sense for sadness to be blue than for four to be blue. 

So there are certain connections, certain concepts in everyone's brain that are connected that way and mine just takes it to a whole other level.

Tammet was among the invited speakers at the TED2.011 'Rediscovery of Wonder' conference in Long Beach, California.

Scientific study

Tammet's abilities have been examined in several scientific investigations.

After the World Memory Championships, Tammet participated in a group study of several superior memorisers later published in the New Year 2.003 edition of Nature Neuroscience.

The researchers investigated the reasons for the memorisers' superior performance. 

They reported that the superior memorisers used "strategies for encoding information with the sole purpose of making it more memorable", and concluded that superior memory was not driven by exceptional intellectual ability or differences in brain structure.

In another study, Simon Baron-Cohen and others at the Autism Research Centre at the University of Cambridge tested Tammet's abilities in around 2.005.

He was found to have synaesthesia according to the "Test of Genuineness-Revised" which tests the subjects' consistency in reporting descriptions of their synaesthesia. 

He performed well on tests of short term memory (with a digit span of 11.5, where 6.5 is typical). 

Conversely, test results showed his memory for faces appeared to be impaired, and he scored at the level expected of a 6-8 year old child in this task. 

The authors speculated that Tammet's savant memory could be a result of synaesthesia combined with Asperger syndrome, while noting that mnemonic strategies (such as the method of loci) could also explain savant memory abilities.

Baron-Cohen, Bor and Billington investigated whether his synaesthesia and Aspergers syndrome explained his savant memory abilities in a further study published in Neurocase in 2.008. 

The authors state that the memory training used by other experts does not explain his abilities, as he had not had explicit training. 

They concluded that his abilities might be explained by hyperactivity in one brain region (the left prefrontal cortex), which results from his Aspergers syndrome and synaesthesia.

On the Navon task, relative to non-autistic controls, Tammet was found to be faster at finding a target at the local level and to be less distracted by interference from the global level.

In an fMRI scan, Tammet did not activate extra-striate regions of the brain "normally associated with synaesthesia", suggesting that he has an "unusual and more abstract and conceptual form of synaesthesia". 

Published in Cerebral Cortex (2.011), another fmRI study by Professor Jean-Michel Hupé and others at the Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition at the University of Toulouse observed no activation of color areas in ten synaesthetes.

Hupé suggests that synaesthetic color experience lies not in the brain's color system, but instead results from "a complex construction of meaning in the brain, involving not only perception, but language, memory and emotion".

In his book Moonwalking with Einstein (2.011), former US Memory Champion Joshua Foer speculates that study of conventional mnemonic approaches has played a role in Tammet's feats of memory, while accepting that Tammet meets the standard definition of a prodigious savant.

In a review of his book for The New York Times, psychologist Alexandra Horowitz described Foer's speculation as among the book's few "missteps" and his decision to devote space to the case of a "renowned savant" such as Tammet "inexplicable," questioning whether it would matter if he had used such strategies or not.

Personal life

Tammet met his first partner, software engineer Neil Mitchell, in 2.000. 

Tammet lived with him in Kent, where they had a quiet regimented life at home with their cats, preparing meals from their garden.

Tammet and Mitchell operated the online e-learning company Optimnem, where they created and published language courses.

Tammet now lives with a new partner, Jérôme Tabet, a French photographer whom he met while promoting his autobiography. 

Although he has said that he did not think he would be here if it were not for the love and support of Mitchell, more recently he noted that he used to live a rigid existence aimed at calming his many anxieties .

"I was very happy, but it was a small happiness" whereas now, as the subtitle of Embracing the Wide Sky  : A tour across the horizons of the mind asserts, he believes that we ought to seek to liberate our brains a belief reflected in his new life :

My life used to be very simple and regimented but since then I have travelled constantly and given lots of lectures and it just changed me...

It made me much more open, much more interested in, I guess, the full potential of what my mind could do... 

Because of that change I grew and in a sense I grew apart from my long-term partner, so we parted amicably in 2.007, and a short while later I met my current partner, who is from France so I decided to go and live with him in Avignon.

Mänti

Mänti is a constructed language that Tammet has created.

The word 'Mänti' comes from the Finnish word for 'pine tree' (mänty). 

Mänti uses vocabulary and grammar from the Finnic languages. 

Some sample words include :

Mänti English Estonian Finnish Notes
buss bus buss bussi
kuppi cup kruus,kapp kuppi
kellokült lateness, tardiness viitsimatus, hilinemine myöhästyneisyys Literally "clock-debt". In Finnish kello = a clock / a bell
puhukello telephone telefon puhelin Literally "speak-bell". In Finnish puhua = to speak
tontöö music muusika musiikki Literally "tone-art". In Estonian töö = work
nööt night öö
koet saapat footwear jalanõud jalkineet In Finnish saappaat = boots. In Estonian saapad = boots.
hamma tooth hammas hammas
rât wire traat johto
râatio radio raadio radio

Works

Non-fiction

Born On A Blue Day (2.006)
Embracing The Wide Sky (2.009)
Non-fiction, Other
What It Feels Like To Be A Savant, in "Esquire", August 2.005
Open Letter to Barack Obama, in "The Advocate", December 2.008
Islands of Genius (2.010), foreword to book by Dr. Darold A. Treffert

Awards

American Library Association's Best Book for Young Adults
Booklist Editors Choice 
Sunday Times Top Choice 
Amazon.co.uk's Best Books of 2.006 
Ann Arbor/Ypsilanti Reads 2.012 Selection 

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Born August 29, 1.947 (age 64) Boston, Massachusetts, United States Nationality American Institutions Colorado State Unive...

Born August 29, 1.947 (age 64)

Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Nationality American

Institutions Colorado State University

Alma mater Franklin Pierce University

Arizona State University

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Known for published works and work with the livestock industry
Autism rights movement

Philosophy

Neurodiversity · Neurotypical · Sociological and cultural aspects · Ableism · Social model of disability · Disability rights movement

Organizations

Autism National Committee · Autism Network International · Autistic Self Advocacy Network · National Autistic Society · Aspies For Freedom

Events

Autistic Pride Day · Autreat

Issues

Judge Rotenberg Educational Center · Karen McCarron · Inclusion (education) · Inclusion (disability rights)

Temple Grandin (born August 29, 1.947) is an American doctor of animal science and professor at Colorado State University, bestselling author, and consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior. 

As a person with high-functioning autism, Grandin is also noted for her work in autism advocacy and is the inventor of the squeeze machine designed to calm hypersensitive people.

Grandin is listed in the 2.010 Time 100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world in the category "Heroes".

Early life and education

Grandin was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Richard Grandin and Eustacia Cutler. 

She was diagnosed with autism in 1.950. 

Having been labeled and diagnosed with brain damage at age two, she was placed in a structured nursery school with what she considers to have been good teachers. 

Grandin's mother spoke to a doctor who suggested speech therapy, and she hired a nanny who spent hours playing turn-based games with Grandin and her sister.

At age four, Grandin began talking, and making progress. 

She considers herself lucky to have had supportive mentors from primary school onwards. 

However, Grandin has said that middle and high school were the worst parts of her life. She was the "nerdy kid" whom everyone teased. 

At times, while she walked down the street, people would taunt her by saying "tape recorder," because she would repeat things over and over again. Grandin states that, "I could laugh about it now, but back then it really hurt."

After graduating from Hampshire Country School, a boarding school for gifted children in Rindge, New Hampshire, in 1.966, Grandin went on to earn her bachelor's degree in psychology from Franklin Pierce College in 1.970, her master's degree in animal science from Arizona State University in 1.975, and her doctoral degree in animal science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1.989.

Career celebrity, advocacy

Grandin's interest in animal welfare began with designs for sweeping curved corrals, intended to reduce stress in animals being led to slaughter.

Grandin is a philosophical leader of both the animal welfare and autism advocacy movements. 

Both movements commonly cite her work regarding animal welfare, neurology, and philosophy. 

She knows the anxiety of feeling threatened by everything in her surroundings, and of being dismissed and feared, which motivates her work in humane livestock handling processes. 

Her business website promotes improvement of standards in slaughter plants and livestock farms. 

In 2.004 she won a "Proggy" award, in the "visionary" category, from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.

One of her notable essays about animal welfare is “Animals are not Things”, in which she posits that animals are technically property in our society, but the law ultimately gives them ethical protections or rights. 

She compares the properties and rights of owning cows versus owning screwdrivers, enumerating how both can be utilized to serve human purposes in many ways but, when it comes to inflicting pain, there is a vital distinction between such 'properties': a person can legally smash or grind up a screwdriver but cannot legally torture an animal.

Grandin became well known after being described by Oliver Sacks in the title narrative of his book An Anthropologist on Mars (1.995); the title is derived from Grandin's description of how she feels around neurotypical people. 

She first spoke in public about autism in the mid-1.980s at the request of Ruth C. Sullivan, one of the founders of the Autism Society of America. Sullivan writes :

I first met Temple in the mid-1.980s ...[at the] annual [ASA] conference.... 

Standing on the periphery of the group was a tall young woman who was obviously interested in the discussions. 

She seemed shy and pleasant, but mostly she just listened.... 

I learned her name was Temple Grandin... 

It wasn't until later in the week that I realized she was someone with autism....

I approached her and asked if she'd be willing to speak at the next year's [ASA] conference. 

She agreed...The next year... Temple first addressed an [ASA] audience.... people were standing at least three deep....

The audience couldn't get enough of her.

Here, for the first time, was someone who could tell us from her own experience what it was like to be extremely sound sensitive ("like being tied to the rail and the train's coming")... 

She was asked many questions : "Why does my son do so much spinning?" "Why does he hold his hands to his ears? "Why doesn't he look at me?" 

She spoke from her own experience, and her insight was impressive. There were tears in more than one set of eyes that day.... 

Temple quickly became a much sought-after speaker in the autism community.

Based on personal experience, Grandin advocates early intervention to address autism, and supportive teachers who can direct fixations of the child with autism in fruitful directions. 

She has described her hypersensitivity to noise and other sensory stimuli. 

She claims she is a primarily visual thinker[6] and has said that words are her second language. 

Temple attributes her success as a humane livestock facility designer to her ability to recall detail, which is a characteristic of her visual memory. 

Grandin compares her memory to full-length movies in her head that can be replayed at will, allowing her to notice small details. 

She is also able to view her memories using slightly different contexts by changing the positions of the lighting and shadows. Her insight into the minds of cattle has taught her to value the changes in details to which animals are particularly sensitive, and to use her visualization skills to design thoughtful and humane animal-handling equipment. 

She was named a fellow of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers in 2.009.

As a partial proponent of neurodiversity, 

Grandin has expressed that she would not support a cure of the entirety of the autistic spectrum.

Personal life

"I think using animals for food is an ethical thing to do, but we've got to do it right. 

We've got to give those animals a decent life and we've got to give them a painless death. 

We owe the animal respect." —Temple Grandin

On May 16, 2.010, Grandin also received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Duke University.

Grandin says, “the part of other people that has emotional relationships is not part of me” and she has neither married nor had children. 

Beyond her work in animal science and welfare and autism rights, her interests include horse riding, science fiction, movies, and biochemistry. 

She describes socializing with others as “boring” and has no interest in reading or watching entertainment about emotional issues or relationships.

She has noted in her autobiographical works that autism affects every aspect of her life.

 She has to wear comfortable clothes to counteract her sensory integration dysfunction and has structured her lifestyle to avoid sensory overload. 

She regularly takes anti-depressants, but no longer uses a squeeze-box (hug machine) that she invented at the age of 18 as a form of stress relief therapy, stating in February 2.010 that: “It broke two years ago, and I never got around to fixing it. I'm into hugging people now.”

In popular culture

Grandin has been featured on major media programs, such as Lisa Davis's It's Your Health, ABC's Primetime Live, the Today Show, and Larry King Live, the NPR show, Fresh Air with Terry Gross, and written up in Time magazine, People magazine, Discover magazine, Forbes and The New York Times.

In 2.012, Grandin was interviewed on Thriving Canine Radio to discuss "A Different Perspective on Animal Behavior."

She was the subject of the Horizon documentary “The Woman Who Thinks Like a Cow”, first broadcast by the BBC on June 8, 2.006, and Nick News in the spring of 2.006.

She has also been a subject in the series First Person by Errol Morris.

Grandin is the focus of a semi-biographical HBO film, titled Temple Grandin, starring Claire Danes as Grandin.

The movie was released in 2.010, was nominated for 15 Emmys, and received five awards, including Outstanding Made for Television Movie and Best Actress in a Drama.

Grandin was on stage as the award was accepted, and spoke briefly to the audience. 

Coincidentally, the 2.010 Emmy Awards happened on Grandin's birthday. 

At the 2.011 Golden Globes, Claire Danes won a Golden Globe for Best Performance by an Actress in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television.

Grandin was featured in Beautiful Minds: A Voyage Into the Brain, a documentary produced in 2.006 by colourFIELD tell-a-vision, a German company. 

She appeared in a 2.011 documentary on Sci Channel, "Ingenious Minds".

She was named one of 2.010's 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine.

Major publications

Emergence: Labeled Autistic (with Margaret Scariano, 1.986, updated 1.991).

The Learning Style of People with Autism: An Autobiography (1.995). 

In Teaching Children with Autism : Strategies to Enhance Communication and Socializaion, Kathleen Ann Quill.

Thinking in Pictures: Other Reports from My Life with Autism (1.996).

Developing Talents: Careers for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism (2.004). 

Animals in Translation : Using the Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior (with Catherine Johnson, 2.005).

The Unwritten Rules of Social Relationships : Decoding Social Mysteries Through the Unique Perspectives of Autism (with Sean Barron, 2.005).

The Way I See It: A Personal Look At Autism And Aspergers (2.009).

Animals Make Us Human: Creating the Best life for Animals (with Catherine Johnson, 2.009).